Le Temple de Salomon et l'Islam

par Menahem Macina

Ci après deux articles qui donnent matière à réflexion. Il s'agit de deux avis radicalement opposés émanant de deux personnalités islamiques de premier plan, à propos de l'existence du Temple de Salomon et de la souveraineté israélienne sur Jérusalem-Est, l'une et l'autres niées et combattues par le mufti de Jérusalem, alors qu'elles sont confirmées et appréciées par le Cheik Palazzi.

Le premier texte (il s'agit d'une interview du mufti de Jérusalem par le journal allemand Die Welt) est en anglais (j'en ai traduit deux passages essentiels). Le second est également en anglais, mais je l'ai entièrement traduit en français.

Vous noterez la belle empathie dont fait preuve le Cheikh Palazzi à l'égard du lien juif à Jérusalem, ainsi que l'honnêteté avec laquelle il reconnaît l'existence du Temple de Jérusalem, vulgairement niée par Arafat et des leaders religieux islamiques.

Quant au courage étonnant dont fait preuve ce religieux islamique en conseillant de laisser la gestion politique de la Vieille Ville aux autorités Israéliennes, il faut espérer qu'il ne le paiera pas cher.

En tout état de cause, ce type de prises de position reconnaissant la vérité des faits - hélas! trop rarement exprimées, sans doute par peur des polémiques ou pire encore - nous enseigne qu'il ne faut pas trop vite recourir à l'amalgame en ne voyant dans les dirigeants religieux islamiques que des fanatiques et des terroristes.

Ce fait réconfortant, même s'il est marginal confirme, s'il en était besoin, que tout homme et toute femme, quelle que soit sa confession de foi, a en commun avec ses frères et soeurs en humanité le sens de la vérité et de la fraternité.

Menahem Macina

The PA Mufti : Jews from Germany Should Return There

Special Dispatch - PA January 25, 2001 - No. 182 - Middle East Media Research Institute (MEMRI)
P.O. Box 7837, Washington DC, 20038-7837 - Phone: (202) 955-9070 - Fax: (202) 955-9077
E-mail: MEMRI@erols.com - Website: www.memri.org

The PA Mufti, Ikrima Sabri, was interviewed by the German Die Welt on the issues of Jerusalem, the Jews and the Arab-Israeli conflict. [1] Following is the interview:
(On se souvient peut être de l'attitude agressive de ce dignitaire religieux, lors du voyage du pape en Terre Sainte) Voir, par contraste, les positions conciliantes de l'éditorialiste de Haaretz : Mutual Respect on the Temple Mount

Une autre personnalité musulmane reconnaissait sans problème, en 1996, l'origine juive de Jérusalem et de son Lieu Saint

Die Welt : The new Intifada is named after the Al-Aqsa Mosque which is on the Temple Mount. On January 4, the Chief Rabbinate declared that Jewish Halacha (Religious Law) prohibits "the transfer of sovereignty over the Temple Mount to foreigners, whether directly or indirectly", for it is the holiest place for the Jewish people. Four days later, you declared in a Fatwa that the place is Muslim in its entirety. Is this an unsolvable contradiction?

Sabri: There is not [even] the smallest indication of the existence of a Jewish temple on this place in the past. In the whole city, there is not even a single stone indicating Jewish History (IL N'Y A PAS LA PLUS PETITE INDICATION DE L'EXISTENCE D'UN TEMPLE JUIF DANS LE PASSE. DANS TOUTE LA VILLE, IL N'Y A PAS LA MOINDRE PETITE PIERRE TEMOIGNANT D'UNE HISTOIRE JUIVE). Our right, on the other hand, is very clear. This place belongs to us for 1500 years. Even when it was conquered by the Crusaders, it remained Al-Aqsa, and we got it back soon afterwards. The Jews do not even know exactly where their temple stood. Therefore, we do not accept that they have any rights, underneath the surface or above it.

Die Welt: It is agreed among archeologists that the Wailing-Wall is part of the foundation of Herod's temple. The Bible and other antique sources report about this place in detail. Why can't you respect the Jewish connection to this place?

Sabri: It is the art of the Jews to deceive the world (LES JUIFS ONT L'ART DE TROMPER LE MONDE). But they can't do it to us. There is not a single stone in the Wailing-Wall relating to Jewish History (IL N'Y A PAS LA MOINDRE PETITE PIERRE DU MUR (DES LAMENTATIONS) QUI REMONTE A L'HISTOIRE JUIVE). The Jews cannot legitimately claim this wall, neither religiously nor historically. The Committee of the League of Nations recommended in 1930, to allow the Jews to pray there, in order to keep them quiet. But by no means did it acknowledge that the wall belongs to them.

Die Welt: Why don't you allow Israeli scientists to dig there to look for possible remnants and proofs for or against the existence of the Jewish temple?

Sabri: We categorically reject all excavations under the Al-Aqsa mosque, because they would endanger the historical buildings on the site. Besides, they have already dug everywhere. All they could find were remnants of buildings from the Omayyad-period. Everything they excavated was related to Arabs and Muslims.

Die Welt: King Hussein once proposed "Divine Sovereignty" over Temple Mount, in order to reduce the tensions between peoples and religions there.

Sabri: We accept God's sovereignty. That is why this mosque is called Al-Aqsa. Allah himself gave it this name. Allah wants the place to belong to the Muslims and to no one else. This is acceptable to us.

Die Welt: Would you agree, if necessary, to the internationalization of the city, in order to manage these unsolvable problems?

Sabri: An internationalized Jerusalem would be worse for us than a Zionist Jerusalem. In such a case, the entire world, and not only one state, would be against us. This would be a regression to colonial times.

Die Welt: On March 23, the Pope said in Jerusalem: "Religion must never be an excuse for the use of force especially when religious identity overlaps with cultural and national identity." How would you answer him?

Sabri: Any religious man would agree with that. We also believe that religion is not the reason for the hatred between peoples. Only those without religion ignore that. But who are they? Who occupies and destroys other peoples and their property?

Die Welt: The Intifada is also violent. Wasn't the peaceful resistance with which Gandhi ended British colonialism in India, more successful?

Sabri: We have fought for peace without using violence since 1967. But no one listened to us. We won resolutions in the UN, but no one lifted a finger for us.

Die Welt: In your July 2000 Fatwa you declared: "We insist on the Right of Return for all the 1948 refugees and prohibit them from getting compensations for [the loss] of the Holy Land, for it has no price. What are the borders of this Holy Land that you refer to?

Sabri: From an Islamic point of view, it stretches from the Mediterranean to the Jordan [River]. It is Palestine in its entirety.

Die Welt: And there is no place for the Israelis?

Sabri: For the Jews who lived here before, there will be a place, of course. But all those Jews who came here from all over the world, must return to the places from where they came. The Jews from Germany should return to Germany. (laughs) After all, you like them so much, don't you?

Die Welt: Does this mean, that there is no place here for a Jewish state?

Sabri: I didn't address this issue in my Fatwa. All I said was that the refugees must return. I didn't say anything about the borders.

[1] Die Welt (Germany) January, 17, 2001.

Un Cheik sunnite affirme que le mufti de l'Autorité Palestinienne déforme l' Islam

By Etgar Lefkovits
Jerusalem Post

JERUSALEM (30 janvier 2001)

Le Prof. Abdul Hadi Palazzi, Cheik sunnite, secrétaire général de l' Association Musulmane Italienne, s'est prononcé en faveur du maintien de la souveraineté israélienne sur la Vieille Ville de Jérusalem. Il accuse également le Mufti de Jérusalem nommé par l'Autorité Palestinienne d' utiliser la religion à des fins politiques d'une manière qui déforme l' histoire de l'Islam.

« Dans la situation actuelle, la seule manière de préserver les libertés religieuses des trois principales religions est qu'Israël soit seul à avoir la souveraineté sur la Vieille Ville », a dit hier Palazzi.

Suite aux accords d'Oslo, l'Autorité Palestinienne a « exilé à Amman le précédent mufti pour le remplacer par un autre qui se sert de sa position pour prêcher une idéologie politique nationaliste », dit Palazzi. En déniant le lien du Judaïsme avec Jérusalem , le mufti de l'Autorité Palestinienne nie aussi fondamentalement l'histoire de l'Islam, affirme Palazzi.

« Dire que le Temple de Salomon n'a jamais existé, alors que ce dernier est mentionné dans les principaux commentaires islamiques médiévaux, contredit non seulement la Bible et l'histoire, mais également l'Islam et le Coran, alors qu'il est notoire que le Coran est « une confirmation des Ecritures qui l'ont précédé », dit-il.

Maître de conférences à l'Université de Velletri, au département d'histoire des religions, Palazzi a également occupé les fonctions d'Imam de la communauté islamique italienne. Il est docteur en sciences islamiques par décret du grand mufti d'Arabie Séoudite.

Il a été co-fondateur, en 1998, de la Société d'Amitié Islamo-Israélienne, qui encourage une attitude musulmane positive envers les Juifs et Israël. Une étude rédigée par lui en 1997 et intitulée : « Le dialogue Judéo-Musulman et la question de Jérusalem », a été publiée par l'Institut du Congrès Juif Mondial. http://www.jpost.com/Editions/2001/01/30/News/News.20474.html

Sunni sheikh says PA mufti distorts Islam

By Etgar Lefkovits

JERUSALEM (January 30) - A Sunni sheikh who is the secretary-general of the Italian Moslem Association, Prof. Abdul Hadi Palazzi, has come out in favor of Israel retaining complete sovereignty over Jerusalem's Old City. He also charges that the Palestinian Authority-appointed mufti of Jerusalem is using religion for a political goal in a way that distorts the history of Islam. "In the present situation, the only way to preserve religious freedoms for all three major religions is for Israel to be the single sovereign over the Old City," Palazzi said yesterday.

As a consequence of the Oslo accords, the PA has "sent the former mufti to exile in Amman and replaced him with a mufti who uses his position to preach with a political-nationalistic ideology," said Palazzi. By denying Judaism's connection to Jerusalem, the PA mufti is in essence negating Islamic history as well, Palazzi said.

"Saying that there was no such thing as a Solomon's Temple, even though that is mentioned in the major medieval Islamic commentaries, contradicts not only the Bible and history but Islam and the Koran as one," he said - noting that the Koran is "a confirmation of the scriptures that came before it." A lecturer at the University of Velletri in the department of history of religion, Palazzi has also served as imam for the Italian Islamic community. He holds a doctorate in Islamic sciences by decree of the grand mufti of Saudi Arabia.

In 1998, he cofounded the Islam-Israel Friendship Society, which promotes a positive Moslem attitude toward Jews and Israel. A 1997 essay he wrote entitled, "The Jewish-Moslem Dialogue and the Question of Jerusalem" was published by the Institute of the World Jewish Congress.